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What distinguishes them from other objects is that functions can be called. In brief, they are Function objects. For more examples and explanations, see also the JavaScript guide about functions. Description Every function in JavaScript is a Function object. See Function for information on properties and methods of Function objects. To return a value other than the default, a function must have a return statement that specifies the value to return. A function without a return statement will return a default value. In the case of a constructor called with the new keyword, the default value is the value of its this parameter. For all other functions, the default return value is undefined. The parameters of a function call are the function’s arguments. Arguments are passed to functions by value. If the function changes the value of an argument, this change is not reflected globally or in the calling function. However, object references are values, too, and they are special: if the function changes the referred object’s properties, that change is visible outside the function, as shown in the following example: /* Declare the function ‘myFunc’ */ function myFunc(theObject) { theObject.brand = “Toyota”; } /* * Declare variable ‘mycar’; * create and initialize a new Object; * assign reference to it to ‘mycar’ */ var mycar = { brand: “Honda”, model: “Accord”, year: 1998 }; /* Logs ‘Honda’ */ console.log(mycar.brand); /* Pass object reference to the function */ myFunc(mycar); /* * Logs ‘Toyota’ as the value of the ‘brand’ property * of the object, as changed to by the function. */ console.log(mycar.brand); The this keyword does not refer to the currently executing function, so you must refer to Function objects by name, even within the function body. Defining functions There are several ways to define functions: The function declaration (function statement) There is a special syntax for declaring functions (see function statement for details): function name([param[, param[, … param]]]) { statements } name The function name. param The name of an argument to be passed to the function. statements The statements comprising the body of the function. The function expression (function expression) A function expression is similar to and has the same syntax as a function declaration (see function expression for details). A function expression may be a part of a larger expression. One can define “named” function expressions (where the name of the expression might be used in the call stack for example) or “anonymous” function expressions. Function expressions are not hoisted onto the beginning of the scope, therefore they cannot be used before they appear in the code. function ([param[, param[, … param]]]) { statements } name The function name. Can be omitted, in which case the function becomes known as an anonymous function. param The name of an argument to be passed to the function. statements The statements comprising the body of the function. Here is an example of an anonymous function expression (the name is not used): var myFunction = function() { statements } It is also possible to provide a name inside the definition in order to create a named function expression: var myFunction = function namedFunction(){ statements } One of the benefits of creating a named function expression is that in case we encountered an error, the stack trace will contain the name of the function, making it easier to find the origin of the error. As we can see, both examples do not start with the function keyword. Statements involving functions which do not start with function are function expressions. When functions are used only once, a common pattern is an IIFE (Immediately Invokable Function Expression). (function() { statements })(); IIFE are function expressions that are invoked as soon as the function is declared. The generator function declaration (function* statement) There is a special syntax for generator function declarations (see function* statement for details): function* name([param[, param[, … param]]]) { statements } name The function name. param The name of an argument to be passed to the function. statements The statements comprising the body of the function. The generator function expression (function* expression) A generator function expression is similar to and has the same syntax as a generator function declaration (see function* expression for details): function* ([param[, param[, … Can be omitted, in which case the function becomes known as an anonymous function. param The name of an argument to be passed to the function. statements The statements comprising the body of the function. The arrow function expression (=>) An arrow function expression has a shorter syntax and lexically binds its this value (see arrow functions for details): ([param[, param]]) => { statements } param => expression param The name of an argument. Zero arguments need to be indicated with (). For only one argument, the parentheses are not required. (like foo => 1) statements or expression Multiple statements need to be enclosed in brackets. A single expression requires no brackets. The expression is also the implicit return value of the function. The Function constructor Note: Using the Function constructor to create functions is not recommended since it needs the function body as a string which may prevent some JS engine optimizations and can also cause other problems. As all other objects, Function objects can be created using the new operator: new Function (arg1, arg2, … argN, functionBody) arg1, arg2, … argN Zero or more names to be used by the function as formal parameters. Each must be a proper JavaScript identifier. functionBody A string containing the JavaScript statements comprising the function body. Invoking the Function constructor as a function (without using the new operator) has the same effect as invoking it as a constructor. The GeneratorFunction constructor Note: GeneratorFunction is not a global object, but could be obtained from generator function instance (see GeneratorFunction for more detail). Note: Using the GeneratorFunction constructor to create functions is not recommended since it needs the function body as a string which may prevent some JS engine optimizations and can also cause other problems. As all other objects, GeneratorFunction objects can be created using the new operator: new GeneratorFunction (arg1, arg2, … argN Zero or more names to be used by the function as formal argument names. Each must be a string that conforms to the rules for a valid JavaScript identifier or a list of such strings separated with a comma; for example “x”, “theValue”, or “a,b”. functionBody A string containing the JavaScript statements comprising the function definition. Invoking the Function constructor as a function (without using the new operator) has the same effect as invoking it as a constructor. Function parameters Default parameters Default function parameters allow formal parameters to be initialized with default values if no value or undefined is passed. For more details, see default parameters. Rest parameters The rest parameter syntax allows representing an indefinite number of arguments as an array. For more details, see rest parameters. The arguments object You can refer to a function’s arguments within the function by using the arguments object. See arguments. arguments: An array-like object containing the arguments passed to the currently executing function. arguments.callee : The currently executing function. arguments.caller : The function that invoked the currently executing function. arguments.length: The number of arguments passed to the function. Defining method functions Getter and setter functions You can define getters (accessor methods) and setters (mutator methods) on any standard built-in object or user-defined object that supports the addition of new properties. The syntax for defining getters and setters uses the object literal syntax. get Binds an object property to a function that will be called when that property is looked up. set Binds an object property to a function to be called when there is an attempt to set that property. Method definition syntax Starting with ECMAScript 2015, you are able to define own methods in a shorter syntax, similar to the getters and setters. See method definitions for more information. var obj = { foo() {}, bar() {} }; Constructor vs. declaration vs. expression Compare the following: A function defined with the Function constructor assigned to the variable multiply: var multiply = new Function(‘x’, ‘y’, ‘return x * y’); A function declaration of a function named multiply: function multiply(x, y) { return x * y; } // there is no semicolon here A function expression of an anonymous function assigned to the variable multiply: var multiply = function(x, y) { return x * y; }; A function expression of a function named func_name assigned to the variable multiply: var multiply = function func_name(x, y) { return x * y; }; Differences All do approximately the same thing, with a few subtle differences: There is a distinction between the function name and the variable the function is assigned to. The function name cannot be changed, while the variable the function is assigned to can be reassigned. The function name can be used only within the function’s body. Attempting to use it outside the function’s body results in an error (or undefined if the function name was previously declared via a var statement). For example: var y = function x() {}; alert(x); // throws an error The function name also appears when the function is serialized via Function’s toString method. On the other hand, the variable the function is assigned to is limited only by its scope, which is guaranteed to include the scope in which the function is declared. As the 4th example shows, the function name can be different from the variable the function is assigned to. They have no relation to each other. A function declaration also creates a variable with the same name as the function name. Thus, unlike those defined by function expressions, functions defined by function declarations can be accessed by their name in the scope they were defined in: A function defined by ‘new Function’ does not have a function name. However, in the SpiderMonkey JavaScript engine, the serialized form of the function shows as if it has the name “anonymous”. For example, alert(new Function()) outputs: function anonymous() { } Since the function actually does not have a name, anonymous is not a variable that can be accessed within the function. For example, the following would result in an error: var foo = new Function(“alert(anonymous);”); foo(); Unlike functions defined by function expressions or by the Function constructor, a function defined by a function declaration can be used before the function declaration itself. For example: foo(); // alerts FOO! function foo() { alert(‘FOO!’); } A function defined by a function expression or by a function declaration inherits the current scope. That is, the function forms a closure. On the other hand, a function defined by a Function constructor does not inherit any scope other than the global scope (which all functions inherit). /* * Declare and initialize a variable ‘p’ (global) * and a function ‘myFunc’ (to change the scope) inside which * declare a varible with same name ‘p’ (current) and * define three functions using three different ways:- * 1. function declaration * 2. function expression * 3. function constructor * each of which will log ‘p’ */ var p = 5; function myFunc() { var p = 9; function decl() { console.log(p); } var expr = function() { console.log(p); }; var cons = new Function(‘tconsole.log(p);’); decl(); expr(); cons(); } myFunc(); /* * Logs:- * 9 – for ‘decl’ by function declaration (current scope) * 9 – for ‘expr’ by function expression (current scope) * 5 – for ‘cons’ by Function constructor (global scope) */ Functions defined by function expressions and function declarations are parsed only once, while those defined by the Function constructor are not. That is, the function body string passed to the Function constructor must be parsed each and every time the constructor is called. Although a function expression creates a closure every time, the function body is not reparsed, so function expressions are still faster than “new Function(…)”. Therefore the Function constructor should generally be avoided whenever possible. It should be noted, however, that function expressions and function declarations nested within the function generated by parsing a Function constructor ‘s string aren’t parsed repeatedly. For example: var foo = (new Function(“var bar = ‘FOO!’;nreturn(function() {ntalert(bar);n});”))(); foo(); // The segment “function() {ntalert(bar);n}” of the function body string is not re-parsed. A function declaration is very easily (and often unintentionally) turned into a function expression. A function declaration ceases to be one when it either: becomes part of an expression is no longer a “source element” of a function or the script itself. A “source element” is a non-nested statement in the script or a function body: var x = 0; // source element if (x === 0) { // source element x = 10; // not a source element function boo() {} // not a source element } function foo() { // source element var y = 20; // source element function bar() {} // source element while (y === 10) { // source element function blah() {} // not a source element y++; // not a source element } } Examples // function declaration function foo() {} // function expression (function bar() {}) // function expression x = function hello() {} if (x) { // function expression function world() {} } // function declaration function a() { // function declaration function b() {} if (0) { // function expression function c() {} } } Block-level functions In strict mode, starting with ES2015, functions inside blocks are now scoped to that block. Prior to ES2015, block-level functions were forbidden in strict mode. ‘use strict’; function f() { return 1; } { function f() { return 2; } } f() === 1; // true // f() === 2 in non-strict mode Block-level functions in non-strict code In a word: Don’t. In non-strict code, function declarations inside blocks behave strangely. For example: if (shouldDefineZero) { function zero() { // DANGER: compatibility risk console.log(“This is zero.”); } } ES2015 says that if shouldDefineZero is false, then zero should never be defined, since the block never executes. However, it’s a new part of the standard. Historically, this was left unspecified, and some browsers would define zero whether the block executed or not. In strict mode, all browsers that support ES2015 handle this the same way: zero is defined only if shouldDefineZero is true, and only in the scope of the if-block. A safer way to define functions conditionally is to assign a function expression to a variable: var zero; if (shouldDefineZero) { zero = function() { console.log(“This is zero.”); }; } Examples Returning a formatted number The following function returns a string containing the formatted representation of a number padded with leading zeros. // This function returns a string padded with leading zeros function padZeros(num, totalLen) { var numStr = num.toString(); // Initialize return value as string var numZeros = totalLen – numStr.length; // Calculate no.of zeros for (var i = 1; i <= numZeros; i++) { numStr = "0" + numStr; } return numStr; } The following statements call the padZeros function. var result; result = padZeros(42,4); // returns "0042" result = padZeros(42,2); // returns "42" result = padZeros(5,4); // returns "0005" Determining whether a function exists You can determine whether a function exists by using the typeof operator. In the following example, a test is performed to determine if the window object has a property called noFunc that is a function. If so, it is used; otherwise, some other action is taken. if ('function' === typeof window.noFunc) { // use noFunc() } else { // do something else } Note that in the if test, a reference to noFunc is used—there are no brackets "()" after the function name so the actual function is not called. Specifications Specification Status Comment ECMAScript 1st Edition (ECMA-262) Standard Initial definition. Implemented in JavaScript 1.0 ECMAScript 5.1 (ECMA-262)The definition of 'Function Definition' in that specification. Standard ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)The definition of 'Function definitions' in that specification. Standard New: Arrow functions, Generator functions, default parameters, rest parameters. ECMAScript Latest Draft (ECMA-262)The definition of 'Function definitions' in that specification. Draft Browser compatibility The compatibility table on this page is generated from structured data. If you'd like to contribute to the data, please check out https://github.com/mdn/browser-compat-data and send us a pull request. Update compatibility data on GitHubDesktopMobileServerChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge MobileFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung InternetNode.jsBasic supportChrome Full support YesEdge Full support YesFirefox Full support 1IE Full support YesOpera Full support YesSafari Full support YesWebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesEdge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support YesSafari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android Full support Yesnodejs Full support YesargumentsChrome Full support YesEdge Full support YesFirefox Full support 1IE Full support YesOpera Full support YesSafari Full support YesWebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesEdge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support YesSafari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android Full support Yesnodejs Full support YesArrow functionsChrome Full support 45Edge Full support YesFirefox Full support 22Notes Full support 22Notes Notes The initial implementation of arrow functions in Firefox made them automatically strict. This has been changed as of Firefox 24. The use of 'use strict'; is now required.Notes Prior to Firefox 39, a line terminator (n) was incorrectly allowed after arrow function arguments. This has been fixed to conform to the ES2015 specification and code like () n => {} will now throw a SyntaxError in this and later versions.IE No support NoOpera Full support 32Safari Full support 10WebView Android Full support 45Chrome Android Full support 45Edge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 22Notes Full support 22Notes Notes The initial implementation of arrow functions in Firefox made them automatically strict. This has been fixed to conform to the ES2015 specification and code like () n => {} will now throw a SyntaxError in this and later versions.Opera Android Full support 32Safari iOS Full support 10Samsung Internet Android Full support 5.0nodejs Full support YesBlock-level functionsChrome ? Edge ? Firefox Full support 46IE ? Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android Full support 46Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ? nodejs ? Default parametersChrome Full support 49Edge Full support 14Firefox Full support 15IE No support NoOpera Full support 36Safari Full support 10WebView Android Full support 49Chrome Android Full support 49Edge Mobile Full support 14Firefox Android Full support 15Opera Android Full support 36Safari iOS Full support 10Samsung Internet Android Full support 5.0nodejs Full support 6.0.0Method definitionsChrome Full support 39Edge Full support YesFirefox Full support 34IE No support NoOpera Full support 26Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 39Chrome Android Full support 39Edge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 34Opera Android Full support 26Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android Full support 4.0nodejs Full support YesRest parametersChrome Full support 47Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 15IE No support NoOpera Full support 34Safari Full support 10WebView Android Full support 47Chrome Android Full support 47Edge Mobile Full support 12Firefox Android Full support 15Opera Android Full support 34Safari iOS Full support 10Samsung Internet Android Full support 5.0nodejs Full support 6.0.0 Full support 6.0.0 Full support 4.0.0Disabled Disabled From version 4.0.0: this feature is behind the –harmony runtime flag.getChrome Full support 1Edge Full support YesFirefox Full support 2IE Full support 9Opera Full support 9.5Safari Full support 3WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android Full support 18Edge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support YesSafari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android Full support Yesnodejs Full support YessetChrome Full support 1Edge Full support YesFirefox Full support 2IE Full support 9Opera Full support 9.5Safari Full support 3WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android Full support 18Edge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support YesSafari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android Full support Yesnodejs Full support YesLegend Full support Full support No support No support Compatibility unknown Compatibility unknownSee implementation notes.See implementation notes.User must explicitly enable this feature.User must explicitly enable this feature. See also function statement function expression function* statement function* expression Function GeneratorFunction Arrow functions Default parameters Rest parameters Arguments object getter setter Method definitions Functions and function scope Document Tags and Contributors Tags: Constructor Function Functions JavaScript Parameter parameters Contributors to this page: snek, zemiak, utkarshbhatt12, stephaniehobson, mfluehr, fscholz, aakash4525, enderandpeter, ijem, kkterai, righttoe, danfoy, wilfreddesert, twooton61, richandhandsomeman, kdex, dmullis, astericky, AprilMorone, SphinxKnight, Mayankgupta688, schlueter, SteveWooding, jorendorff-moz, hunan-rostomyan, Ende93, mocas0, P0lip, arai, klez, Sheppy, lunamystry, lavish, Robg1, sharq, oddalot, rlee0001, rajashree396, zannr, kenansulayman, kscarfone, ethertank, jswisher, evilpie, Paul-Dowsett, teoli, [email protected], bigbossSNK, ziyunfei, fbender, PointedEars, Sevenspade, [email protected], BYK, RobG, Ole Laursen, Potappo, fusionchess, Brettz9, ben.mcintyre, Brendan, Shoot, Mgjbot, Crowder, Knyaz Vladimir, Nickolay, 1163070363, mchenryc, Molily, Kbdamm, Permidion, Dasnyderx, Maian Last updated by: snek, Aug 20, 2018, 2:16:54 PM Related Topics JavaScript Tutorials: Complete beginners JavaScript basics JavaScript first steps JavaScript building blocks Introducing JavaScript objects JavaScript Guide Introduction Grammar and types Control flow and error handling Loops and iteration Functions Expressions and operators Numbers and dates Text formatting Regular expressions Indexed collections Keyed collections Working with objects Details of the object model Using promises Iterators and generators Meta programming Intermediate Introducing JavaScript objects Client-side web APIs A re-introduction to JavaScript JavaScript data structures Equality comparisons and sameness Closures Advanced Inheritance and the prototype chain Strict mode JavaScript typed arrays Memory Management Concurrency model and Event Loop References: Built-in objects ArrayArrayBuffer AsyncFunctionAtomicsBigIntBooleanDataViewDateErrorEvalErrorFloat32ArrayFloat64ArrayFunctionGeneratorGeneratorFunctionInfinityInt16ArrayInt32ArrayInt8ArrayInternalErrorIntlIntl.CollatorIntl.DateTimeFormatIntl.NumberFormatIntl.PluralRulesJSONMapMathNaNNumberObjectPromiseProxyRangeErrorReferenceErrorReflectRegExpSetSharedArrayBufferStringSymbolSyntaxErrorTypeErrorTypedArrayURIErrorUint16ArrayUint32ArrayUint8ArrayUint8ClampedArrayWeakMapWeakSetWebAssemblydecodeURI()decodeURIComponent()encodeURI()encodeURIComponent() escape()eval()isFinite()isNaN()nullparseFloat()parseInt()undefined unescape() uneval() Expressions & operators Arithmetic operators Array comprehensionsAssignment operatorsBitwise operatorsComma operatorComparison operatorsConditional (ternary) operatorDestructuring assignment Expression closures Generator comprehensionsGrouping operator Legacy generator function expressionLogical operatorsObject initializerOperator precedence Pipeline operatorProperty accessorsSpread syntaxasync function expressionawaitclass expressiondelete operatorfunction expressionfunction* expressionin operatorinstanceofnew operatornew.targetsuperthistypeofvoid operatoryieldyield* Statements & declarations Legacy generator functionasync functionblockbreakclassconstcontinuedebuggerdefaultdo…whileemptyexportforfor await…of for each…infor…infor…offunction declarationfunction*if…elseimportimport.metalabelletreturnswitchthrowtry…catchvarwhile with Functions Arrow functionsDefault parametersMethod definitionsRest parametersThe arguments objectgettersetter Classes constructorextendsstatic Errors Error: Permission denied to access property “x”InternalError: too much recursionRangeError: argument is not a valid code pointRangeError: invalid array lengthRangeError: invalid dateRangeError: precision is out of rangeRangeError: radix must be an integerRangeError: repeat count must be less than infinityRangeError: repeat count must be non-negativeReferenceError: “x” is not definedReferenceError: assignment to undeclared variable “x”ReferenceError: can’t access lexical declaration`X’ before initializationReferenceError: deprecated caller or arguments usageReferenceError: invalid assignment left-hand sideReferenceError: reference to undefined property “x”SyntaxError: “0”-prefixed octal literals and octal escape seq. are deprecatedSyntaxError: “use strict” not allowed in function with non-simple parametersSyntaxError: “x” is a reserved identifierSyntaxError: JSON.parse: bad parsingSyntaxError: Malformed formal parameterSyntaxError: Unexpected tokenSyntaxError: Using //@ to indicate sourceURL pragmas is deprecated. Aquí puedes encontrar las instrucciones sobre cómo habilitar (activar) JavaScript en cinco de los navegadores más utilizados. Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox Google Chrome Opera Apple Safari Si eres un desarrollador web, revisa las instrucciones sobre cómo implementar el código